Impact of Social Media On Consumer Purchase Behaviour During COVID-19 Pandemic


  • Kah Boon Lim Multimedia University, Malaysia
  • Sook Fern Yeo Faculty of Business, Multimedia University Melaka
  • Cheng Ling Tan Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Wong Wei Wen Faculty of Business, Multimedia University Melaka



Convenience, COVID-19, Price, Product variety, Purchase behaviour, Risk


Social media has been used by people to create and share content with the public. Consumers have changed their purchasing habits from offline to online purchases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media is also changing sellers' and buyers' specialised strategies. This study aimed to study the factors influencing consumer purchasing behaviour via social media during the COVID-19 outbreak. 215 young adults from three Malaysian states which are Johor, Melaka, and Selangor, have been invited to participate in this study by answering a set of questionnaires. The successful response rate is 93.02%, where 200 completed questionnaires were used for data analysis in this study. The four independent variables, price, convenience, product variety, and risk, are tested in relation to the dependent variable, consumer purchase behaviour during the COVID-19 outbreak. The measurement items of all the four independent variables and dependent variables were adopted from the past research studies. The collected data were entered into SPSS version 26 and then tested using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM 3.3.3). All hypotheses were found to be supported by the analysis results. Lastly, the findings of this study will help marketers understand consumer purchasing behaviour via social media during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Akbar, S. and James, P.T., 2014. Consumers' attitude towards online shopping Factors influencing employees of crazy domains to shop online. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 14, p.1.

Beneke, J., Scheffer, M.K. and Du, W., 2010. Beyond price-An exploration into the factors that drive young adults to purchase online. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2(2), p.212.

Bakos, J.Y., 1997. Reducing buyer search costs: Implications for electronic marketplaces. Management science, 43(12), pp.1676-1692.

Bhatnagar, A., Misra, S. and Rao, H.R., 2000. On risk, convenience, and Internet shopping behavior. Communications of the ACM, 43(11), pp.98-105.

Bhatti, A., Akram, H., Basit, H.M., Khan, A.U., Raza, S.M. and Naqvi, M.B., 2020. E-commerce trends during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 13(2), pp.1449-1452.

Cases, A.S., 2002. Perceived risk and risk-reduction strategies in Internet shopping. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 12(4), pp.375-394.

Chang, C., 2011. The effect of the number of product subcategories on perceived variety and shopping experience in an online store. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 25(3), pp.159-168.

Chang, M.K., Cheung, W. and Lai, V.S., 2005. Literature derived reference models for the adoption of online shopping. Information & management, 42(4), pp.543-559.

Chiang, K.P. and Dholakia, R.R., 2003. Factors driving consumer intention to shop online: an empirical investigation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1-2), pp.177-183.

Childers, T.L., Carr, C.L., Peck, J. and Carson, S., 2001. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behavior. Journal of retailing, 77(4), pp.511-535.

Chin, W.W., 1998. Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling.

Cho, J., 2004. Likelihood to abort an online transaction: influences from cognitive evaluations, attitudes, and behavioral variables. Information & Management, 41(7), pp.827-838.

Clemes, M.D., Gan, C. and Zhang, J., 2014. An empirical analysis of online shopping adoption in Beijing, China. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(3), pp.364-375.

Comegys, C., Hannula, M. and Väisänen, J., 2006. Longitudinal comparison of Finnish and US online shopping behaviour among university students: The five-stage buying decision process. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 14(4), pp.336-356.

Darian, J.C., 1987. In-home shopping: are there consumer segments?. Journal of retailing.

Darley, W.K., Blankson, C. and Luethge, D.J., 2010. Toward an integrated framework for online consumer behavior and decision making process: A review. Psychology & marketing, 27(2), pp.94-116.

Delafrooz, N., Paim, L.H., Haron, S.A., Sidin, S.M. and Khatibi, A., 2009. Factors affecting students attitude toward online shopping. African Journal of Business Management, 3(5), pp.200-209.

ElMaraghy, H., Schuh, G., ElMaraghy, W., Piller, F., Schönsleben, P., Tseng, M. and Bernard, A., 2013. Product variety management. Cirp Annals, 62(2), pp.629-652.

Guo, Y.U.E. and Barnes, S.J., 2012. Explaining purchasing behavior within World of Warcraft. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(3), pp.18-30.

Gold, A.H., Malhotra, A. and Segars, A.H., 2001. Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of management information systems, 18(1), pp.185-214.

Goldsmith, R.E. and Flynn, L.R., 2005. Bricks, clicks, and pix: apparel buyers' use of stores, internet, and catalogs compared. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management.

Hanaysha, J.R., 2018. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market. PSU Research Review.

Haque, A., Anwar, N., Yasmin, F., Sarwar, A., Ibrahim, Z. and Momen, A., 2015. Purchase intention of foreign products: A study on Bangladeshi consumer perspective. Sage Open, 5(2), p.2158244015592680.

Hair Jr, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C. and Sarstedt, M., 2016. A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European business review.

Hoch, S.J., Bradlow, E.T. and Wansink, B., 1999. The variety of an assortment. Marketing Science, 18(4), pp.527-546.

Hussain, S., Li, Y. and Li, W., 2021. Influence of platform characteristics on purchase intention in social commerce: Mechanism of psychological contracts. Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research, 16(1), pp.1-17.

Hustic, I. and Gregurec, I., 2015. The influence of price on customer's purchase decision. In Central European conference on information and intelligent systems (p. 27). Faculty of Organization and Informatics Varazdin.

Jarvenpaa, S.L. and Todd, P.A., 1996. Consumer reactions to electronic shopping on the World Wide Web. International Journal of electronic commerce, 1(2), pp.59-88.

Joschka, M., 2021. Malaysia: social media penetration 2021 | Statista. [online] Statista. Available at: <> [Accessed 10 June 2021].

Keeney, R.L., 1999. The value of Internet commerce to the customer. Management science, 45(4), pp.533-542.

Kim, H.W., Sumeet, G. and Li, H., 2005, July. Different effects of perceived price and risk on purchase intention for potential and repeat customers. In Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) (pp. 1639-1645).

Kohli, C., Suri, R. and Kapoor, A., 2015. Will social media kill branding?. Business Horizons, 58(1), pp.35-44.

Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G., 2016. Principles of Marketing Sixteenth Edition: Global Edition. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Lay-Yee, K.L., Kok-Siew, H. and Yin-Fah, B.C., 2013. Factors affecting smartphone purchase decision among Malaysian generation Y. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(12), pp.2426-2440.

Lee, M.K. and Turban, E., 2001. A trust model for consumer internet shopping. International Journal of electronic commerce, 6(1), pp.75-91.

Lewicki, R.J. and Bunker, B.B., 1995. Trust in relationships: A model of development and decline. Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

Lin, Y.C., Lee, Y.C., Lin, C.H. and Lin, W.T., 2009. Discount level, promotional type, and brand awareness on consumers' brand evaluation and purchase intention: an empirical study of handsets. Soochow Journal of Economics and Business, 67, pp.1-46.

Lin, Y.C., Lee, Y.C. and Chen, K.C., 2012. The influence of brand image and product knowledge in the advertising effect–take placement marketing movie as an example. Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, 15(4-5), pp.581-600.

Liu, C., Marchewka, J.T., Lu, J. and Yu, C.S., 2005. Beyond concern—a privacy-trust-behavioral intention model of electronic commerce. Information & Management, 42(2), pp.289-304.

Lohse, G., Bellman, S. and Johnson, E.J., 2000. Consumer buying behavior on the Internet: Findings from panel data. Journal of interactive Marketing, 14(1), pp.15-29.

Mahliza, F., 2020. Consumer trust in online purchase decision. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (IJMR), 6(2), pp.142-149.

Mallapragada, G., Chandukala, S.R. and Liu, Q., 2016. Exploring the effects of “What”(product) and “Where”(website) characteristics on online shopping behavior. Journal of Marketing, 80(2), pp.21-38.

Meuter, M.L., Ostrom, A.L., Roundtree, R.I. and Bitner, M.J., 2000. Self-service technologies: understanding customer satisfaction with technology-based service encounters. Journal of marketing, 64(3), pp.50-64.

Mirabi, V., Akbariyeh, H. and Tahmasebifard, H., 2015. A study of factors affecting on customers purchase intention. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 2(1).

Rahim, A., Safin, S.Z., Kheng, L.K., Abas, N. and Ali, S.M., 2016. Factors influencing purchasing intention of smartphone among university students. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, pp.245-253.

Reibstein, D.J., 2002. What attracts customers to online stores, and what keeps them coming back?. Journal of the academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), pp.465-473.

Rizwan, M., Umair, S.M., Bilal, H.M., Akhtar, M. and Bhatti, M.S., 2014. Determinants of customer intentions for online shopping: A Study from Pakistan. Journal of Sociological Research, 5(1), pp.248-272.

Shimp, T.A. and Bearden, W.O., 1982. Warranty and other extrinsic cue effects on consumers' risk perceptions. Journal of Consumer research, 9(1), pp.38-46.

Sin, L. and Tse, A., 2002. Profiling internet shoppers in Hong Kong: demographic, psychographic, attitudinal and experiential factors. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15(1), pp.7-29.

Surenderkumar, C.V., 2016. A Study On Impact Of Social Media Marketing On Consumer Buying Behavior With Reference To Thane District. Shri Jagdish Prasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, pp.1-352.

Swaminathan, V., Lepkowska-White, E. and Rao, B.P., 1999. Browsers or buyers in cyberspace? An investigation of factors influencing electronic exchange. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 5(2), p.JCMC523.

Szymanski, D.M. and Hise, R.T., 2000. E-satisfaction: an initial examination. Journal of retailing, 76(3), pp.309-322.

y Monsuwé, T.P., Dellaert, B.G. and De Ruyter, K., 2004. What drives consumers to shop online? A literature review. International journal of service industry management.

Yoon, S., Oh, S., Song, S., Kim, K.K. and Kim, Y., 2014. Higher quality or lower price? How value-increasing promotions affect retailer reputation via perceived value. Journal of Business Research, 67(10), pp.2088-2096.




How to Cite

Lim, K. B., Yeo, S. F. ., Tan , C. L. ., & Wen, W. W. . (2022). Impact of Social Media On Consumer Purchase Behaviour During COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Creative Economy, 2(1), 24–36.