A Mixed Study on the School Head's and Teacher's Self-Efficacy and School Performance: An Input for Policy Enhancement for Social Media Learning in the Philippines during the New Normal
Keywords:Self-efficacy, Social Media Learning Tools, Instructional Leadership, Moral Leadership, School Performance
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic created a radical transformation in teaching-learning in schools worldwide. This phenomenon challenged the self-efficacy of teachers and school heads in public schools in the Philippines, specifically on how to apply social media learning, which is a new modality. Through a mixed research method, 232 schoolteachers and 26 school heads participated in answering an adopted modified questionnaire; and ten school personnel participated in answering a researcher-made interview guide. The findings showed that profile variables such as age, sex, educational background, and length of service did not significantly correlate with school performance. In contrast, the challenges associated with self-efficacy in terms of educational management, instructional leadership, moral leadership, and application of social media learning tools were all significantly correlated with school performance. This indicated that self-efficacy improves school performance in both teachers and school heads and is influenced by their positive and healthy attitudes. From the qualitative data, the derived themes have implications with economic conditions, knowledge, and skills on the application of technology, transfer of knowledge to students, maintaining coordination, collaboration, and support from educational stakeholders, curriculum design and adherence with educational standards, imposing disciplinary measures, and compliance with school requirements. Officials in the educational setting should consider upgrading policies on personnel capability and capacity building, enhancing professional development, and equipping them with the application of modern teaching methods. All these concepts were considered in a proposed recommendation to the Department of Education, Philippines, for policy enhancement.
Abun, Damianus & Asuncion, Sonny & Lazaro, Janette & Magallanes, Theogenia & Nimfa, C.. (2021). The effect of educational attainment, length of work experience on the self-efficacy of teachers and employees. International Journal of Business Ecosystem & Strategy (2687-2293). 3. 16-28. 10.36096/ijbes.v3i2.258.
Amnah Jameel Abo Mokh, Shaheen Jameel Shayeb, Amjad Badah, Islam Asim Ismail, YaffaJumah Ahmed, Laila K. A. Dawoud, Hanan Essam Ayoub. Levels of Technostress Resulting from Online Learning among Language Teachers in Palestine during Covid-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Educational Research. 2021; 9(5):243-254. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-5-1.
Aureada, J. U. (2021). The Instructional Leadership Practices of School Heads. International Journal of
Educational Management and Development Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp. 75 - 89.
Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9-44. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0149206311410606
Bandura, A., & Wood, R. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(5), 805. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnologyjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41239-019-0158-x April 30, 2022.. Google Scholar.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52, 1–26. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar (as cited by WeiBenfels, M., Klopp, E. and Perils, F., 2021).
Bedi, I. K. ., & Kukemelk, H. . (2021). Influence of Age and School Type on Reform Practices Performed by School Heads. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 12(5), 82. https://doi.org/10.36941/mjss-2021-0046
Berebitsky, D., & Salloum, S. J. (2017). The relationship between collective efficacy and teachers’ social
networks in urban middle schools. AERA Open, 3(4). http://doi.org/10.1177/2332858417743927
Bergman, MM (2012) the Good, the Bad and the Ugly in Mixed Methods Research and Design. Retrieved on December 1, 2021 from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1558689811433236. Google Scholar
Castroverde, F., Acala, M. (2021) Modular distance learning modality: challenges of teachers in teaching amid the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Research Studies in Education 2021 Volume 10 Number 8, 7-15 . Retrieved on May 25, 2022 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352746170_Modular_distance_learning_modality_Challenges_of_teachers_in_teaching_amid_the_Covid-19_pandemic
Cherry, Joy & Aquino, & Fabelico, Fitzgerald & Afalla, Bonimar. (2021). Managing educational institutions: School heads' leadership practices and teachers' performance. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE). 10. 1325-1333. 10.11591/ijere.v10i4.21518.
Childhope Inc (2021) The Current Education Issues in the Philippines and how Childhope Rises to the Challenge. Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from https://childhope.org.ph/education-issues-in-the-philippines/
Child-Hope (2021) Getting to Know the Philippine New Normal in Education. Retrieved on May 24, 2022 from https://childhope.org.ph/new-normal-in-education/#:~:text=New%20Normal%20Learning%20Challenges,cost%20of%20school%2Dbased%20learning.
Cho, Yoonyoung; Avalos, Jorge; Kawasoe, Yasuhiro; Johnson, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ruth. 2021. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Low Income Households in the Philippines : Impending Human Capital Crisis. COVID-19 Low Income HOPE Survey;. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/35260 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO
Corry, M. and Stella, J. (2018) Teacher self-efficacy in online education: a review of the literature. Retrieved on May 4, 2022 from https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2047
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches (5th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Creswell, J. and Poth, C. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Deaton, S. (2016). i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 12 l No. 1 l April - June 2015
De Luna, T.P.S. (2015) Innovation in Education: Utilization and Employment ofe-Books in Philippine Educational Institutions. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 2015
Dilighan, T. and Owen, M. (2021). Teacher Efficacy for Online Teaching during COVID-19 Pandemic. A Journal of Educational Research and Practice 2021, vol. 30(1). Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1289256.pdf
Domenech, F., Abellan-Rosello, L. and Gomez-Artiga, A. (2017). Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513915/on March 27, 2022. Google Scholar
Drago-Severson, E., & Blum-DeStefano, J. (2018). Leading change together. Developing educator capacity
within schools and systems. ASCD.
Dutta, S. and Smita, M. (2020) The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Tertiary Education in Bangladesh:
Students’ Perspectives. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 53-68. doi: 10.4236/jss.2020.89004.
Eastwood A.(2021) Strategies to Overcome Special Special Education Teacher Burnout-Minnesota State UniversityMoorheadJournaVoll.2.4https://red.mnstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1606&context=thesi
Eddy C., Hermon K.,Reinke W.(2019)Single-item teacher stress and coping measures: Concurrent and predictive validity and sensitivity to change-Journal of School Psychology Vol.79 ,Issue 17-32 p.19 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440519300263
Elliott K., & Hollingsworth, H. (2020). A case for reimagining school leadership development to enhance collective efficacy. Camberwell, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=educational_leadership
Elliott, K. (2019). Teachers’ perceptions and experiences of a performance and development process as a mechanism to support teacher development. (PhD thesis, The University of Melbourne). Retrieved on March 1, 2022 from https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/handle/11343/228901
Epel L. (2018) Psychosocial Factors and Academic Performances. A Systematic Review of the Psychosocial Correlates of Academic Performance- Research Gate https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288310836_A_theoretical_review_of_psychosocial_stress_and_health
Epel E.(2018)Academic Stress amongst Students: A Review of Literature- Prestige e-Journal of Management And Research https://www.pimrindore.ac.in/vol4-issue2-vol5-ssue1/5.ACADEMIC%20STRESS%20AMONGST%20STUDENTS%20A%20REVIEW%20OF%20LITERATURE.pdf
Francisco, A. (2020). Teachers’ Personal and Professional Demographic Characteristics as Predictors of Students Academic Performance in English. International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 80-91
Gallo, A. (2015) Refresher on Regression Analysis. Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from https://hbr.org/2015/11/a-refresher-on-regression-analysishttps://hbr.org/2015/11/a-refresher-on-regression-analysis
Grissom, Jason A., Anna J. Egalite, and Constance A. Lindsay (2021). “How Principals Affect Students and Schools: A Systematic Synthesis of Two Decades of Research.” New York: The Wallace Foundation. Available at http://www.wallacefoundation.org/principalsynthesis
Guiab, Marissa R. and Ganal, Nicette N. (2014). "Demographic profile of public school heads and school-related problems”. Express, an International Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Research. ISSN: 2348 – 2052, Vol. 1, Issue 4, April 2014
Han, I., & Shin, W. S. (2016). The use of a mobile learning management system and academic achievement of online students. Computers & Education, 102, 79 89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.07.003
Herzberg, F. (1993). The Motivation to work. New Brunswick, New Jersey, NJ (1993). Google Scholar.
Johari F. (2021). Work-Related Stress and Coping Strategies: A Systematic Literature Review-International of Academic Research.Vol. 10, No. 6, 2020, Pg. 1016 -1032http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i6/7
Johnson, B. and Christensen, L.(2005). Educational Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Allyn & Bacon, Pearson Education Company: USA.
Kitchakarn, O. (2016). How Students Perceived Social Media as a Learning Tool in Enhancing their Language Learning Performance. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – October 2016, volume 15 issue 4. 53-60.
Knoll, T. and Neri, M. (2009) Design for mixed research methods. Retrieve on June 16, 2022 from https://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur7130/qualitative/16_Mixed_Methods_Kroll_Neri_2009b.pdf
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2020). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership and Management, 40(1), 5 – 22. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2019.1596077
Lestari, P. A. S., and Gunawan, G. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Learning Implementation of Primary and Secondary School Levels. Indonesian J. Elem. Child. Educ. 1 (2), 58–63 (as cited by Wu, S., 2021)
Lorico, DS., Tinagco, C., Sumalignog, DA., Sabarillo, N. and Diaz, M. (2021) an effective blended online teaching and learning strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved on May 25, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847201/
Magallanes, T. (2021). The effect of educational attainment, length of work experience on the self-efficacy of teachers and employees. International Journal of Business Ecosystem & Strategy (2687-2293).
Matira, M. D (2014). Statistics for Thesis Writers. Tracers Risk Management Training consultant. Quezon Hill: Baguio City.
McBrayer, Juliann Sergi 4785659; Akins, Carter; Gutierrez de Blume, Antonio; Cleveland, Richard; and Pannell, Summer (2019) "Instructional Leadership Practices and School Leaders' Self-Efficacy," School Leadership Review: Vol. 15: Iss. 1, Article 13.
Moll, R., & Nielsen, W. (2017). Development and validation of a social media and science learning survey. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 7(1), 14-30. DOI: 10.1080/21548455.2016.1161255
Mohadjan, H. (2017) Two Criteria for Good Measurements in Research: Validity and Reliability. Retrieved on December 8, 2021 from: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/83458/1/MPRA_paper_83458.pdf
Mnkandla, E., & Minnaar, A. (2017). The use of social media in E-learning: A metasynthesis. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 18(5), 227– 248. As cited by Toquero, CM and Talidong, KJ (2020)
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
NapoleonCat. (2020). Facebook users in the Philippines. Retrieved from https://napoleoncat.com/stats/facebook-users-in-philippines/2020/01. As cited by Toquero, CM and Talidong, KJ (2020)
Orlanda-Ventayanen, C. and Ventayanen, R (2021) stress and Depression in the Workplace of Educators in the Philippines. Retrieved on April 6, 2022 fromhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.22.21254017v1.full
Owusu-Fordjour, C., Koomson, C. K., and Hanson, D. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 on Learning-The Perspective of the Ghanaian Student. Eur. J. Educ. Stud. 7 (3), 88–101. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3753 (as cited by Wu, S., 2021)
Paschal, S. (2021). SELF-EFFICACY AND TEACHER-EFFECTIVENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1993.9941836.
Perera, H., Claskins C. and Part, R. (2019) Teacher self-efficacy profiles: Determinants, outcomes and generalizability across teaching level. Retrieved on May 4, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361476X18300195
Radjuni, Abubakar. (2021). Teachers' Profile and Classroom Instruction Delivery: The Case of a Certain University in the Southern Philippines: Teacher's profile. Open Access Indonesia Journal of Social Sciences. 4. 219-227. 10.37275/oaijss.v4i2.52
Salvan, Vebhie Joy C, LPT. and, Hambre Milagros M., Ph.D. (2020). Teachers’ Demographic Profile on the Learners’ Performance Using K-12 Earth and Space module. Journal of Education & Social Policy Vol. 7, No. 4, December 2020 doi:10.30845/jesp.v7n4p14
Seyedi-Andi, SJ, Bakouei, F., Adib Rad. H., Khafri, S. and Salavati, A. (2019) The relationship between self-efficacy and some demographic and socioeconomic variables among Iranian Medical Sciences students. Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from https://www.dovepress.com/the-relationship-between-self-efficacy-and-some-demographic-and-socioe-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-AMEP
Siciliano, M. D. (2016). It's the quality not the quantity of ties that matters: Social networks and self-efficacy beliefs. American Educational Research Journal, 53(2), 227–262. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216629207
Talidong, K. J., & Toquero, C. M. (2020). Philippine teachers' practices to deal with anxiety amid COVID-19. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 1– 7. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1759225 as cited by Toquero, CM and Talidong, KJ (2020)
Teddie C. & Tashakkori (2009). Foundation of mixed methods research. Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in social and behavioral sciences. London, Sage. Researchgate.net/publication. Retrieved on September 11, 2021.
Timans, R., Wouters, P. & Heilbron, J. (2019) Mixed method Research; what it is and what it could be. Theory and Society volume 48. Retrieved on December 2, 2021 fromhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11186-019-09345-5.
Tolman, E. (2016) Intervening Variables. Available at: https ://www.statisticshowto.com/intervening-variable. Retrieved on November 18, 2021.
Toquero, C. M. (2020). Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Philippine Context. Pedagogical Res. 5 (4), em0063. doi:10.29333/pr/7947 (as cited by Wu, S., 2021
Toquero, CM and Talidong, KJ (2020) Socio-educational implications of technology use during COVID19: A case study in General Santos City, Philippines. Retrieved on February 20, 2022 from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hbe2.214. Google Scholar.
Van Mannen, M. (2014). Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. Qualitative health Research, 16, 713-722.
Vebhie, J. and Salvan, LPT (2020) Teachers’ Demographic Profile on the Learners’ performance. Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from espnet.com/journals/Vol_7_No_4_December_2020/14.p
WeiBenfels, M., Klopp, E. and Perels, F. (2021). Changes in Teacher Burnout and Self-Efficacy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Interrelations and e-Learning Variables Related to Change. Retrieved on May 4, 2022 from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2021.736992/full
Wilde, N. and Hsu, A. (2019) The Influence of general self-efficacy on the interpretation of vicarious experience information within online learning. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education Volume 16 (26). https://educationaltechnologyjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41239-019-0158-x. Retrieved on November 27, 2021.
Winter, E. (2021) Teachers’ use of technology and the impact of Covid-19. Retrieved on May 25, 2022 from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03323315.2021.1916559
Wu, S. (2021) How teachers conduct online teaching during the COVID-10 Pandemic: A Case Study of Taiwan. Retrieved on May 3, 2022 from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2021.675434/full
Yoon, I. and Kim, M. (2021) Dynamic pattern of teachers’ professional development participation and their relations with socio-demographic characteristics, teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Retrieved on May 4, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0742051X21002900
Zaib, Nouman (2020). The impact of school heads’ demographic characteristics on their leadership styles. Competitive Social Science Research Journal (CSSRJ), 1 (2), 19-30 ISSN(Print): 2708-9029, ISSN(Online): 2708-9037
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Marivi R Escobin, Alberto D Yazon, Consorcia S Tan, Marcial M Bandoy, Lerma P Buenvinida
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Content Licensing, Copyright, and Permissions
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education has CC-BY NC or an equivalent license as the optimal license for the publication, distribution, use, and reuse of scholarly work for non-commercial purpose. The non-commercial use of the article will be governed by the Creative Commons Attribution license as currently displayed on Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
Creative Commons License
2. Author’s Warranties
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).
3. User Rights
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education objective is to disseminate articles published are as free as possible. Under the Creative Commons license, this journal permits users to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work for non-commercial purposes only. Users will also need to attribute authors and this journal on distributing works in the journal.
4. Rights of Authors
Authors retain the following rights:
Copyright, and proprietary rights relating to the article, such as patent rights,
The right to use the substance of the article in future own works, including lectures and books, The right to reproduce the article for own purposes, The right to self-archive the article, the right to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the article's published version (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal (International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education).
The author has a non-exclusive publishing contract with a publisher and the work is published with a more restrictive license, the author retains all the rights to publish the work elsewhere, including commercially, because she/he is not subject to the conditions of her / his own license, regardless of the type of CC license chosen.
If the article was jointly prepared by other authors, the signatory of this form warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to sign this agreement on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this agreement.
This agreement can be terminated by the author or International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education upon two months’ notice where the other party has materially breached this agreement and failed to remedy such breach within a month of being given the terminating party’s notice requesting such breach to be remedied. No breach or violation of this agreement will cause this agreement or any license granted in it to terminate automatically or affect the definition of International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education.
This agreement entitles the author to no royalties or other fees. To such extent as legally permissible, the author waives his or her right to collect royalties relative to the article in respect of any use of the article by This agreement can be terminated by the author or International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education upon two months’ notice where the other party has materially breached this agreement and failed to remedy such breach within a month of being given the terminating party’s notice requesting such breach to be remedied. No breach or violation of this agreement will cause this agreement or any license granted in it to terminate automatically or affect the definition of International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education or its sublicensee.
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education will publish the article (or have it published) in the journal if the article’s editorial process is successfully completed and International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education or its sublicensee has become obligated to have the article published. International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education may conform the article to a style of punctuation, spelling, capitalization, referencing and usage that it deems appropriate. The author acknowledges that the article may be published so that it will be publicly accessible and such access will be free of charge for the readers