Enhancing Most Essential Learning Competency (Melc) in English 9 Using The Skills-Based Learning Material
Keywords:: skills-based learning material, learning performance
The skills-based learning material was made and studied by the researcher due to sudden changes in education in a time of the pandemic. The main focus of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the skills-based learning material for English 9. This study used the pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design, which falls under the quasi-experimental design. On the test of significant difference between the formative mean scores of the experimental and comparison groups, it was found out that the formative tests had a significant effect on the respondents' learning performance at p 0.01 level. Additionally, the posttest mean scores of each group; got the 0.01 level of significance, as well as the pretest and posttest mean scores of each group. Moreover, based on the computed Cohen's d value of 1.16, the effect size of the learning material to the students' performance is large compared to the comparison group that shows a small effect size at 0.31 Cohen's d value. Generally, there is a significant difference between the formative test of the two groups with the average and high mean scores, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the posttest mean scores of the two groups and as well between the pre-test and post-test mean scores. Moreover, Cohen's effect size value of 1.16 suggested a large effect of the material on the respondents' learning performance. As for recommendations, there is a need for the teacher to incorporate the 21st Century Skills into learning competencies.
Ashraf, H., Ahmadi, F., & Hasseinnia, M. (2017). Integrating 21st Century Skills into Teaching English: Investigating Its Effect on Listening and Speaking Skills. ERIC, 7 (4) 35-43. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1173769
Bialik, M., et.al (2017). Character Education for the 21st Century: What Should Students Learn?. Center for Curriculum Redesign. https://curriculumredesign.org/wp-content/uploads/CCR-CharacterEducation_FINAL_27Feb2015.pdf
Bryman, A.& Bell, (2007). The Ethics of Management Research: An Exploratory Content Analysis. British Journal of Management,18, 63-77 http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00487.x
Bybee, R. W. (2013). The case for STEM education. Arlington: NSTA Press.
Caspi, A., Gorsky, P. & Privman, M. (2005). Viewing comprehension: Students’ learning preferences and strategies when studying from video. Instr Sci 33, 31–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-004-2576-x
Chong, C. (2018). Ten trends and innovations in English language teaching for 2018. British Council, https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/ten-trends-innovations-english-language-teaching-2018
Corpuz- Bullecer, W. (2017). Viewing Skills: Understanding the Word and the World. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 5 (3). http://www.apjmr.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/APJMR2017.5.3.2.12. pdf
Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn, 20, 51?76.
Ferguson, S. et.al (2019). The Future is Now- Science for Achieving Sustainable Development. University of the West Indies. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/24797GSDR_report_2019.pdf
Halvorsen, A. (2018). 21st Century Skills and the “4Cs” in the English Language Classroom.https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/23598/halvorsen_21_century_skills.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Levin-Goldberg, J. (2012). Teaching Generation TechX with the 4Cs: Using Technology to Integrate 21st Century Skills. Journal of Instructional Research. 1. 59-66. 10.9743/JIR.2013.8.
Moradi, K. (2012). The impact of listening strategy instruction on academic lecture comprehension: A case of Iranian EFL learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 406-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.078.
Nurhana, R.D. (2014). IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING SKILLS THROUGH INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA OF THE 8TH GRADE AT SMP RADEN FATAH CIMANGGU CILACAP IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2013/2014. English Language Education Department Faculty of Languages and Arts Yogyakarta State University 2014, 64-65
Pardede, P. (2020). Integrating the 4Cs into EFL Integrated Skills Learning. Journal of English Teaching. e-ISSN: 2622-4224 | p-ISSN: 2087-9628
Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from www.p21.org/about-us/p21-framework
Ross, D. (2017). Empowering Our Students with 21st-Century Skills for Today. Getting Smart. https://www.gettingsmart.com/2017/04/empowering-students-21st-century-skills/
Sachs, J. (2015). Economist and UN adviser Jeffrey Sachs on why 2015 is critical to setting the world on a safer, more prosperous path. UN News. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/05/jeffrey-sachs-interview/
Spearce, J. (2021). VR, TPRS and Beyond: 6 English Language Teaching
Trends for 2021 You Don’t Want to Miss. FluentU, https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator-english/english-language-teaching/
Stehle, S.M. et.al (2019). Developing student 21st Century skills in selected exemplary inclusive STEM high schools. IJ STEM Ed6, 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-019-0192-1
UNDP. (2019). The Sustainable Development Goals 4- Quality Education. https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals
Vivekanandan, R. (2019). Integrating 21st century skills into education systems: From rhetoric to reality. Education Plus Development
Zobler, A. (2010). "EFFECTS OF LISTENING STRATEGIES INSTRUCTION ON COMPREHENSION, ORAL PROFICIENCY, AND METACOGNITION ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS". Education Dissertations, 16. https://repository.wcsu.edu/educationdis/16
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 AILENE LUMANOG, Myrna O. Medrano
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Content Licensing, Copyright, and Permissions
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education has CC-BY NC or an equivalent license as the optimal license for the publication, distribution, use, and reuse of scholarly work for non-commercial purpose. The non-commercial use of the article will be governed by the Creative Commons Attribution license as currently displayed on Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
Creative Commons License
2. Author’s Warranties
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).
3. User Rights
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education objective is to disseminate articles published are as free as possible. Under the Creative Commons license, this journal permits users to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work for non-commercial purposes only. Users will also need to attribute authors and this journal on distributing works in the journal.
4. Rights of Authors
Authors retain the following rights:
Copyright, and proprietary rights relating to the article, such as patent rights,
The right to use the substance of the article in future own works, including lectures and books, The right to reproduce the article for own purposes, The right to self-archive the article, the right to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the article's published version (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal (International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education).
The author has a non-exclusive publishing contract with a publisher and the work is published with a more restrictive license, the author retains all the rights to publish the work elsewhere, including commercially, because she/he is not subject to the conditions of her / his own license, regardless of the type of CC license chosen.
If the article was jointly prepared by other authors, the signatory of this form warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to sign this agreement on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this agreement.
This agreement can be terminated by the author or International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education upon two months’ notice where the other party has materially breached this agreement and failed to remedy such breach within a month of being given the terminating party’s notice requesting such breach to be remedied. No breach or violation of this agreement will cause this agreement or any license granted in it to terminate automatically or affect the definition of International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education.
This agreement entitles the author to no royalties or other fees. To such extent as legally permissible, the author waives his or her right to collect royalties relative to the article in respect of any use of the article by This agreement can be terminated by the author or International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education upon two months’ notice where the other party has materially breached this agreement and failed to remedy such breach within a month of being given the terminating party’s notice requesting such breach to be remedied. No breach or violation of this agreement will cause this agreement or any license granted in it to terminate automatically or affect the definition of International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education or its sublicensee.
International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education will publish the article (or have it published) in the journal if the article’s editorial process is successfully completed and International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education or its sublicensee has become obligated to have the article published. International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education may conform the article to a style of punctuation, spelling, capitalization, referencing and usage that it deems appropriate. The author acknowledges that the article may be published so that it will be publicly accessible and such access will be free of charge for the readers