Development and Validation of Comic-based Learning Module in Physics


  • Jeah May O. Badeo De La Salle University
  • Dr. Bee Ching U. Ong Kian Koc De La Salle University



ADDIE Model, Comic-based learning module, development and validation, instructional material


Providing instructional materials that support the diverse learning styles and needs of 21st-century learners is becoming a trend in today's online learning. Thus, this descriptive developmental research design aimed to develop Comic-based Learning Modules (CLM) as instructional material envisioned to meet these learners' needs for a better understanding of Physics concepts. This study employed the ADDIE model for the instructional material development design. The initial developed CLM was revalidated following the comments and suggestions of the validators before distribution for online learning. Four experts validated the CLM in terms of content/lessons, illustrations, additional features, language, layout, and overall presentation using a researcher-made criterion-based reference evaluation tool. The validators rated the developed instructional material featuring three CLM as "Highly Acceptable" (4.66). The value of the average inter-rater reliability coefficient kappa of the ratings of the validators is interpreted as "Substantial Agreement" (0.63). CLM was then implemented as instructional material and found to have high usability as rated by the students. Also, the CLM drew positive feedback for online learning use because of its exciting nature and uniqueness.


Affeldt, F., Meinhart, D., & Eilks, I. (2018). The use of comics in experimental science instructions in a non-formal learning environment. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 6(1), 93-104.

Aquino, V. P. (2019). Effects of Digitized Instructional Materials in the Performance of Grade 3 Learners in English. San Carlos Research Journal, 1(2), 43-49.

Arroio, A. (2011). Comics as a narrative in natural science education. Western Anatolia Journal of Educational Science, 3(7), 93-98.

Bolton-Gary, C. (2012). Connecting through comics: Expanding opportunities for teaching and learning. US-China Education Review, 4(1), 389-395.

Cahapay, M. B. & Rotas, E. E. (2020). Difficulties in Remote Learning: Voices of Philippine University Students in the Wake of COVID-19 Crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 147-158.

Cheesman, K. (2006). Using comics in science classroom: A pedagogical tool. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35(4), 48-51.

Collver, J., & Weitkamp, E. (2007). Alter egos: An exploration of the perspectives and identities of science comic creators. Journal of Science Communication, 17(1), 1-22.

Hayman, G., & Pratt H. (2005). What are Comics?, 2nd ed. New Jersey, U.S.: Prentice Hall, 419-424.

Hosler, J., & Boomer, K.B. (2011). Are comic books an effective way to engage nonmajors in learning and appreciating science. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 10(3), 309-317.

Lin, S.F., Lin, H.S., Lee, L., & Yore, L. (2015). Are science comics a good medium for science communication? The case for public learning of nanotechnology. International Journal of Science Education, 5(3), 276-294.

Lund, A. M. (2001). Measuring usability with the USE questionnaire. Usability Interface, 8(2), 3–6.

Mamolo, L. A. (2019). Development of digital interactive math comics (DIMaC) for senior high school students in general mathematics. Cogent Education, 6(3), 1-13.

Mayer, R. E, & Sims, V. K. (2004). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia. Journal of Education Psychology, 86(1), 389-401.

McCloud, S. (1994). Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art, 1st ed. New York, U.S.: Harper Collins Publisher, 3-11.

Meskin, A. (2008). Defining comics? The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 65(4), 369-379.

Muzumdar, J. (2016). An overview of comic books as an educational tool and implications for pharmacy. Innovations in Pharmacy, 7(4), 3-12.

Naylor, S., & Keogh, B. (2010). Concept Cartoons in Science Education. New York, U.S.: Millgate House, 78-83.

Ozdemir, E. (2017). Comics in modern physics: Learning blackbody radiation through quasi-history of physics. Studies in Educational Research and Development, 1(1), 41-59.

Tatalovic, M. (2009). Science comics as tools for science education and communication: A brief and exploratory study. Journal of Science Communication, 8(4), 1-17.

Trnova, E., Trna, J., & Vacek, V. (2013). The Roles of Cartoons and Comics in Science Education. 10th International Conference Hands-on Science 2013. Educating for Science and through science. pp. 240-244.

Tuimur, H., & Chemwei B. (2019). Availability and use of instructional materials in the teaching of conflict and conflict resolution in primary schools in Nandi North District, Kenya. International Journal of Education and Practice, 3(6), 224-234.

Versaci R. (2001). How comic books can change the way our students see literature: One teacher’s perspective. English Journal, 91(2) 23-31.

Wayulanto, H.D. (2006). Comics as learning visual communication media. Nirvana Visual Communication Design Journal, 7(1), 45-55.

Yulianti, D., Khanafiyah, S., & Sulistyorini, S. (2016). Inquiry-based science comic physics series integrated with character education. Indonesian Journal of Science Education, 5(1), 33-44.




How to Cite

Badeo, J. M., & Ong Kian Koc, B. C. (2022). Development and Validation of Comic-based Learning Module in Physics. International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education, 4(2), 1–11.