Reviewing the Human Capital Performance Stimulants of Private Employees in Indonesia: The Role of Job Satisfaction as a Mediator with a Quantitative Approach


  • Hery Pandapotan Silitonga Management Study Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Sultan Agung
  • Ady Inrawan Management Study Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Sultan Agung
  • Lenny Dermawan Sembiring Management Study Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Sultan Agung
  • Darwin Lie Management Study Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Sultan Agung
  • Sri Rezeki Putri Tanjung Management Study Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Sultan Agung



work satisfaction, human capital performance, private employees


The effectiveness of organizations and companies is correlated with human capital performance. Therefore, we require the use of human capital performance as a benchmark for organizations and companies to achieve the vision and mission together. Later, the benchmark will serve as a basis for policymaking on the future maintenance and improvement of human capital performance. This research aims to find out the stimulants that affect the human capital performance of private employees. The quantitative causality approach is used in this study to answer the formulation of research problems and research hypotheses. Next, the researcher tested the hypothesis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on a variant called Partial Least Square (PLS) and the SmartPLS version 3.0 application as a tool to analyze it. The results of this research conclude that six hypotheses that examine the direct effect of self-leadership, organizational justice, and work environment on work satisfaction obtain positive and significant results. Then self-leadership, teamwork management, and work satisfaction on human capital performance also obtained positive and significant results. In addition, the results of this research also confirm the positive and significant mediating effect of work satisfaction on the indirect impact of self-leadership, organizational justice, and work environment on human capital performance. For further research, the author recommends further researchers develop variables that are suspected to be the main predictors to encourage work satisfaction and human capital performance to provide complete recommendations regarding the development of human resource performance, especially for millennial workers. This study presents a research model related to human capital performance regarding self-leadership, teamwork management, and work satisfaction and the contribution of self-leadership, organizational justice, and work environment to work satisfaction.


Abbasi, A., Baradari, F., Sheghariji, H., & Shahraki, J. (2020). Impact of Organizational Justice on Workplace Deviance with Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction in SMEs of Malaysia. European Journal of Business and Management, 12(17), 52–63.

Adil, M. S., & Hamid, K. B. A. (2020). Effect of Teamwork on Employee Performance in High-Tech Engineering SMEs of Pakistan: A Moderating Role of Supervisor Support. South Asian Journal of Management Sciences, 14(1), 122–141.

Agarwal, S., & Adjirackor, T. (2016). Impact Of Teamwork On Organizational Productivity In Some Selected Basic Schools In The Accra Metropolitan Assembly. European Journal of Business, Economics and Accountancy, 4(6), 40–52.

Ahmad, I., & Manzoor, S. R. (2017). Effect of Teamwork, Employee Empowerment and Training on Employee Performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(11), 380–394.

Al-Douri, Z. (2020). Organizational Justice And Its Impact On Job Satisfaction: Evidence From Transportation Industry. Management Science Letters, 10(2), 351–360.

Askari, G., Asghri, N., Gordji, M. E., Asgari, H., Filipe, J. A., & Azar, A. (2020). The Impact Of Teamwork On An Organization's Performance: A Cooperative Game's Approach. Journal Mathematics, 8(10), 1–15.

Ayesha, I., Redjeki, F., Sudirman, A., Leonardo, A., & Aslam, D. F. (2021). Behavior of Female Entrepreneurs in Tempe Small Micro Enterprises in Tasikmalaya Regency , West Java as Proof of Gender Equality Against AEC. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Blended Learning, Educational Technology and Innovation (ACBLETI 2020), 560(Acbleti 2020), 124–130.

Bakhshi, A., Kumar, K., & Rani, E. (2009). Organizational Justice Perceptions As Predictor Of Job Satisfaction And Organization Commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(9), 145–154.

Budiyanto, & Oetomo, H. W. (2011). The Effect Of Job Motivation, Work Environment And Leadership On Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction And Public Service Quality In Magetan, East Java, Indonesia. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 75(3), 192–200.

Clay-Warner, J., Reynolds, J., & Roman, P. (2005). Organizational Justice And Job Satisfaction: A Test Of Three Competing Models. Social Justice Research, 18(4), 391–409.

Crossman, A., & Abou-Zaki, B. (2003). Job Satisfaction And Employee Performance Of Lebanese Banking Staff. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(4), 368–376.

Darma, I. N. A. S., Surya, I. B. K., & Suwandana, I. G. M. (2019). Job Satisfaction Moderate In Self-Leadership On Job Performance. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences, 6(6), 270–277.

Delcourt, C., Gremler, D., Riel, A. C. R., & Birgelen, M. Van. (2018). Effects Of Perceived Employee Emotional Competence On Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty The Mediating Role Of Rapport. Journal of Service Managemen, 24(1), 5–24.

Djajasinga, N. D., Sulastri, L., Sudirman, A., Sari, A. L., & Rihardi, L. (2021). Practices in Human Resources and Employee Turnover in the Hospitality Industry. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Blended Learning, Educational Technology and Innovation (ACBLETI 2020) Practices, 560(Acbleti 2020), 113–117.

Djukic, M., Kovner, C. T., Brewer, C. S., Fatehi, F., & Greene, W. H. (2014). Exploring Direct and Indirect Influences of Physical Work Environment on Job Satisfaction for Early-Career Registered Nurses Employed in Hospitals. Research in Nursing and Health, 37(4), 312–325.

Elamin, A., & Alomaim, N. (2011). Does Organizational Justice Influence Job Satisfaction and Self-Perceived Performance in Saudi Arabia Work Environment? International Management Review, 7(1), 38.

Eliyana, A., Ma’arif, S., & Muzakki. (2019). Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment Effect In The Transformational Leadership Towards Employee Performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144–150.

Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling, Metode Alternatif dengan Partial Least Square (PLS). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Greenberg, J. (1987). A Taxonomy of Organizational Justice Theories. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 9–22.

Haerani, S., Sumardi, Hakim, W., Hartini, & Putra, A. H. P. K. (2020). Structural Model Of Developing Human Resources Performance: Empirical Study Of Indonesia States Owned Enterprises. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(3), 211–221.

Hanaysha, J. (2015). Testing the Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Employee Productivity in Higher Education Sector Drivers of Purchase Decision and Customer Retention in Retail Industry View project Testing the Effects of Employee Empowermen. International Journal of Learning & Development, 6(1), 164–178.

Hartman, S. J., Yrle, A. C., & Galle, W. P. (1999). Procedural And Distributive Justice: Examining Equity In A University Setting. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(4), 337–352.

Hwang, M. I. (2018). Relationship Between Teamwork And Team Performance: Experiences From An Erpsim Competition. Journal of Information Systems Education, 29(3), 157–168.

Indajang, K., Halim, F., & Sudirman, A. (2021). The Effectiveness of Teacher Performance in Terms of the Aspects of Principal Leadership , Organizational Culture , and Teacher Competence. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Blended Learning, Educational Technology and Innovation (ACBLETI 2020), 560(Acbleti 2020), 402–408.

Inuwa, M. (2016). Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance: An Empirical Approach. The Millennium University Journal, 1(1), 90–103.

Iqbal, K. (2013). Determinants of Organizational Justice and its impact on Job Satisfaction. A Pakistan Base Survey. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), 48–56.

Javadi, M. H. M., Rezaee, M. S., & Salehzadeh, R. (2013). Investigating the Relationship between Self-Leadership Strategies and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 3(3), 284–289.

Jusriadi, E., Syafaruddin, & Rusydi. (2021). Human Capital Development Of Researsh Staff Through Self-Leadership, Teamwork Management, And Culture Diversity. Jurnal Minds: Manajemen Ide Dan Inspirasi, 8(1), 1–14.

Kafui Agbozo, G., Owusu, I. S., Hoedoafia, M. A., & Atakorah, Y. B. (2017). The Effect of Work Environment on Job Satisfaction: Evidence from the Banking Sector in Ghana. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(1), 12–18.

Kim, S. J., & Chung, E. K. (2019). The Effect Of Organizational Justice As Perceived By Occupational Drivers On Traffic Accidents: Mediating Effects Of Job Satisfaction. Journal of Safety Research, 68, 27–32.

Lamri, Setyadi, D., Riadi, S. S., Hariyadi, S., & Palutturi, S. (2020). Job satisfaction and performance of the employees. Journal of Arts & Humanities, 09(04), 88–97.

Lie, D., Dharma, E., & Sudirman, A. (2021). Measurement of Teacher Performance in Pematangsiantar City Middle School Through Teacher Certification , Motivation , and Job Satisfaction. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Blended Learning, Educational Technology and Innovation (ACBLETI 2020) Measurement, 560(Acbleti 2020), 396–401.

Manz, C. C., & Neck, C. P. (1999). Mastering Self Leadership: Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 139–140.

Manzoor, S. R., Ullah, H., Hussain, M., & Ahmad, Z. M. (2011). Effect of Teamwork on Employee Performance. International Journal of Learning and Development, 1(1), 110.

Marques-Quinteiro, P., Vargas, R., Eifler, N., & Curral, L. (2019). Employee Adaptive Performance And Job Satisfaction During Organizational Crisis: The Role Of Self-Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(1), 85–100.

Mustriwati, K. A., Sudarmika, P., & Candiasa, I. M. (2021). The Impact Of Self-Leadership And Organizational Commitment On The Performance Of COVID-19 Nurses. Journal of Nursing and Social Sciences Related to Health and Illness Original, 23(1), 40–44.

Na-Nan, K., & Saribut, S. (2020). Validation Of Employees' Self-Leadership Using Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analysis. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 37(4), 552–574.

Napitupulu, S. B., Agustina, A., Chandra, D., & Sanusi, A. (2021). The Effect Of Team Work, Family Work Conflict And Employment Family Conflict On The Performance Of BNI Employees Long South Branch. Asian Journal of Social Science and Management Technology, 3(1), 95–102.

Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two Decades Of Self-Leadership Theory And Research: Past Developments, Present Trends, And Future Possibilities. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(4), 270–295.

Nurhayati, M., Pramudito, O., & Ermawati, E. (2018). The Importance Of Teamwork On Business Restaurant In Medicating Effect Of Work Discipline On Employee Performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 10(18), 42–50.

Nzewi, H. N., Chiekezie, O. M., & Nnesochi, I. M. (2015). Teamwork and Performance of Selected Transport Companies in Anambra State. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR), 3(9), 124–132.

Otache, I. (2019). The Mediating Effect Of Teamwork On The Relationship Between Strategic Orientation And Performance Of Nigerian Banks. European Business Review, 31(5), 744–760.

Ouyang, Z., Sang, J., Li, P., & Peng, J. (2015). Organizational Justice And Job Insecurity As Mediators Of The Effect Of Emotional Intelligence On Job Satisfaction: A Study From China. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 147–152.

Ozdemir, G. (2020). The Effect of Teachers' Self Leadership Perceptions on Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Society Researche, 10(15), 1–1.

Politis, J. D. (2006). Self-Leadership Behavioural-Focused Strategies And Team Performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(3), 203–216.

Prussia, G. E., Anderson, J. S., & Manz, C. C. (1998). Self-Leadership And Performance Outcomes: The Mediating Influence Of Self-Efficacy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 523–538.

Rinny, P., Bohlen Purba, C., & Handiman, U. T. (2020). The Influence Of Compensation, Job Promotion, And Job Satisfaction On Employee Performance Of Mercubuana University. Www.Ijbmm.Com International Journal of Business Marketing and Management, 5(2), 2456–4559.

Sabuhari, R., Sudiro, A., Irawanto, D. W., & Rahayu, M. (2020). The Effects Of Human Resource Flexibility, Employee Competency, Organizational Culture Adaptation And Job Satisfaction On Employee Performance. Management Science Letters, 10(8), 1777–1786.

Sardžoska, E. G., & Tang, T. L. P. (2012). Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 373–391.

Sawitri, D., Cahyandari, N., & Muawanah, U. (2018). Hubungan Self Leadership, Self Efficacy dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada Badan Pendapatan Daerah Kabupaten Mojokerto. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Bisnis Indonesia, 6(1), 76–90.

Stewart, G. L., Courtright, S. H., & Manz, C. C. (2011). Self-Leadership: A Multilevel Review. Journal of Management, 37(1), 185–222.

Suliman, M., & Aljezawi, M. (2018). Nurses' Work Environment: Indicators of Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management, 26(5), 525–530.

Supriyanto, A. S., Ekowati, V. M., & Maghfuroh, U. (2020). Do Organizational Citizenship Behavior And Work Satisfaction Mediate The Relationship Between Spiritual Leadership And Employee Performance? Management Science Letters, 10(5), 1107–1114.

Theo, C., Nursyamsi, I., & Munizu, M. (2019). The Effect of Discipline, Work Motivation, Work Expenses on Employee Performance Through Work Satisfaction. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 7(4), 132–140.

Wang, T. K., & Brower, R. (2019). Job Satisfaction Among Federal Employees: The Role of Employee Interaction With Work Environment. Public Personnel Management, 48(1), 3–26.




How to Cite

Silitonga, H. P. ., Inrawan, A. ., Sembiring, L. D. ., Lie, D. ., & Tanjung, S. R. P. . (2022). Reviewing the Human Capital Performance Stimulants of Private Employees in Indonesia: The Role of Job Satisfaction as a Mediator with a Quantitative Approach. Applied Quantitative Analysis, 1(2), 1–15.