Utilizing Anacardium occidentale Leaves Extract as an Alternative to Conventional Antibiotics Against Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms


  • Moohamad Ropaning Sulong Halalan Thayyiban Research Centre, Universiti Islam Sultan Sharif Ali, Brunei Darussalam
  • Farrah Nazuha Mansor Universiti Selangor, Malaysia
  • Sulaiman Abdul Haq Hazman Universiti Selangor, Malaysia
  • Rozila Alias Universiti Selangor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0850-3812




Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), A. occidentale, leaf extracts, inhibition zones, bioactive compounds, cultural and ethical considerations, halal


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical global health crisis that compromises the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and increases the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. This study investigates the potential of A. occidentale leaf extracts as a natural replacement for conventional antibiotics, particularly against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Extracts from young and mature leaves were prepared using aqueous and ethanolic methods and evaluated for their antimicrobial properties using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results showed that ethanolic extracts from young leaves exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and effectively inhibited 17 bacterial strains, including S. typhimurium and S. aureus, with inhibition zones of up to 35.58 mm. This indicates that the young leaves are rich in bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, which are known for their strong antimicrobial properties. In contrast, ethanolic extracts of mature leaves showed more specific antibacterial activity, particularly against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with zones of inhibition of 17.15 mm and 15.70 mm, respectively. These results suggest that mature leaves may contain unique bioactive compounds that are effective against specific pathogens, highlighting their potential for targeted antimicrobial therapies. This study highlights the importance of A. occidentale as a source of natural antimicrobial agents and emphasises the need to adhere to the principles of Islamic Sharia law during extraction. Given the ongoing threat of antibiotic resistance, the results support further research into the therapeutic applications of plant-derived compounds that combine traditional medical knowledge with modern scientific approaches to combat antibiotic-resistant infections.


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May 30, 2024

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Sulong, M. R., Mansor, F. N., Hazman, S. A. H., & Alias, R. (2024). Utilizing Anacardium occidentale Leaves Extract as an Alternative to Conventional Antibiotics Against Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms. Journal of Halal Science, Industry, and Business, 2(1), 79–89. https://doi.org/10.31098/jhasib.v2i1.2326

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